Greenland

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Joined: EU 1973 (under Denmark) left 1985 Eurozone N/A Schengen N/A Greenland joined the European Economic Community in 1973 as part of the Kingdom of Denmark despite rejecting membership in a 1972 referendum. It initially remained a member after they became an autonomous nation under Danish sovereignty in 1979, but voted to leave in a 1982 referendum. 3 years later it left under the Greenland Treaty, which declares it a special case. It continues to have a fisheries agreement with what is now the European Union and is classed as a European Union Overseas Country or Territory. Greenland and the European Union signed a more comprehensive Partnership Agreement in 2014. The hopes of Scotland and Gibraltar to remain within the European Union when the rest of the United Kingdom leaves is based on a reverse Greenland principle of being treated as special cases because of prior membership via the United Kingdom. This rested on a misunderstanding of Greenland’s status: it did not leave the European Union, but moved from full membership as held by Denmark to a similar status to another Danish autonomous area, the Faroe Islands. Greenlanders remain European Union citizens by virtue of Denmark’s membership. There is at present no European Union procedure for being a member or Overseas Territory of a non member state.

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