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The Nations section of Brexit in Context dealt with the three leave voting nations (England, Wales, and Cornwall) and the three remain voting nations (Scotland, Northern Ireland, and Gibraltar). The Nations section of this website will address matters relating to those nations, but also the other 27 EU member states, and non-EU countries that will have an impact on the UK's future if and when it leaves the EU. At present this section contains articles on Northern Ireland and Scotland that were written before I began writing the book. The chapters on those nations in the book bears little relation to these early articles, which were written in the days after the referendum result was declared. This was originally an appendix to Brexit in Context which did not make it into the published version of the text. As that appendix was still in process of being written when it was abandoned many of these countries entries are no more than stubs, but will be added to over time.

Below are full lists of members at each stage of the expansion of the European Union and of the Eurozone. There is also a list of NATO members as of 2016, which included 22 European Union members. Germany is used throughout, although from 1958 to 1991 it is West Germany that is referred to.

Countries in the European Union

European Economic Community 1958 (6 Members)

Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, and Netherlands.

European Economic Community 1973 (9 Members)

Belgium, Denmark (including Greenland), France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, and United Kingdom (including Gibraltar).

European Economic Community 1981 (10 Members)

Belgium, Denmark (including Greenland), France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, and United Kingdom (including Gibraltar).

European Economic Community 1985 (10 Members)

Belgium, Denmark (no longer including Greenland), France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, and United Kingdom (including Gibraltar).

European Economic Community 1986 (12 Members)

Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, and United Kingdom (including Gibraltar).

European Union 1993 (12 Members)

Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, and United Kingdom (including Gibraltar).

European Union 1995 (15 Members)

Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and United Kingdom (including Gibraltar).

European Union 2004 (25 Members)

Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Cyprus, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and United Kingdom (including Gibraltar).

European Union 2007 (27 Members)

Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Cyprus, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and United Kingdom (including Gibraltar).

European Union 2013 (28 Members)

Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Cyprus, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and United Kingdom (including Gibraltar).

Countries in the Eurozone

1999 (11 members of electronic only currency)

Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain.

2001 (12 members of cash currency)

Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain.

2007 (13 members)

Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, and Spain.

2008 (15 members)

Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, and Spain.

2009 (16 members)

Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Spain.

2011 (17 members)

Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Spain.

2014 (18 members)

Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Spain.

2015 (19 members)

Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Spain.

NATO Members

2016 (28 members, including 22 from the European Union)

Albania, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Turkey, United Kingdom, and United States.

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