1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s


1945-May-08 World War against Germany ends with UK national debt at 250% of GDP.

1945-Jul-05 Clement Atlee won the end of war general election for Labour after rejecting Winston Churchill's proposal of a referendum on continuing the wartime coalition.

1945-Sep-02 World War Two ended with the surrender of Japan.

1945-Oct-24 United Nations founded.

1946-Sep-19 Winston Churchill called for a United States of Europe to guarantee peace on the continent.

1946-Dec-15 The Union of European Federalists set up to campaign for the establishment of a federal Europe and to prevent further war on the continent.

1947-Jan-01 British coal industry nationalised.

1947-Jan British United Europe Movement founded by Winston Churchill and his son-in-law Conservative MP Duncan Sandys to promote a united Europe as a region under the United Nations.

1947-Jul-17 United Europe Movement among the groups who met as the Committee on the Coordination of the European Movements.

1947-Aug-15 India and Pakistan gained independence from the British Empire.

1947-Nov-10 Committee on the Coordination of the European Movements renamed as the Joint International Committee on European Unity. Chaired by Duncan Sandys.

1948-Apr-03 Marshall Plan launched for the economic reconstruction of Europe. The UK was the biggest beneficiary receiving 24% of funds by the time it closed in 1950.

1948-Apr-16 Organisation for European Economic Co-operation formed under the Marshall Plan to disseminate aid and to encourage inter-governmental economic co-operation. Its eighteen members were Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK, and West Germany.

1948-May-07-11 Europe Congress met in The Hague, Netherlands. It called for further progress towards European integration and a human rights charter to be governed by a court. Chaired by Winston Churchill and organised by the Joint International Committee on European Unity. It was split between federalists and those wanting an inter-governmental body.

1948 -May-14 Israel gained independence from the British Empire.

1948-Jun-24 Soviet Union began the blockade of West Berlin (the French, British, and American sectors of the city).

1948-Oct-25 Joint International Committee on European Unity became the European Movement with Duncan Sandys as its president.

1949-Jan-28 Belgium, France, Luxembourg, Netherlands, and the UK agree to set up the Council of Europe.

1949-May-12 Soviet Union ended the West Berlin blockade.

1949-Aug-10 Council of Europe held its first meeting in Strasbourg, France.

1949 British Commonwealth formed to unite the countries of the British Empire with those who gained independence from it.

1949-Apr-04 NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) established by Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, UK, and the United States.

1949-May-24 West Germany established.


1950-May-09 Schuman Declaration proposed economic collaboration between France and West Germany under one supra-national authority.

1950-Jun-02 British government rejected UK involvement in the Schuman plan.

1950-Jun-25 North Korean army invaded South Korea and the three-year Korean War commences, which brings American, British, and Australian troops back into military action.

1950-June-30 Marshall Aid ended and the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation's influence on European integration diminished.

1950-Aug-26 Schuman Declaration endorsed by the Council of Europe.

1950-Nov-04 The Council of Europe published the European Convention on Human Rights.

1951-Apr-18 Treaty of Paris established the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC). It was a 50-year treaty signed by Belgium, France, Italy, Netherlands, Luxembourg, and West Germany, which expired in 2002.

1951-Oct-26 Winston Churchill became UK prime minister again.

1952-May-27 European Defence Community Treaty signed.

1952-Jul-23 ECSC came into existence.

1953-Feb-10 ECSC common market in coal and iron ore commenced.

1953-Mar-05 Joseph Stalin died leading to uncertainty about the future of communist states in Eastern Europe.

1953-Mar-09 Paul-Henri Spaak presented ECSC Council with a plan for a European Political Community that would include a two chamber parliament and council of national ministers, guarantee to defend any member that was militarily attacked, co-ordinate foreign policy, and create a common market.

1953-Mar-15 ECSC common market in scrap iron commenced.

1953-Jul-27 armistice signed in Korean War, but no peace deal is signed.

1953-Sep-03 European Convention on Human Rights came into force (this is run by the Council of Europe and is not part of the EU).

1954-May-07 French Army surrendered at Dien Bien Phu to Vietnamese communist forces.

1954-Aug-30 French National Assembly rejected the European Defence Community Treaty over the possible presence of West German troops on French soil. The Spaak Plan for a European Political Community was abandoned.

1954-Nov-10 Jean Monnet resigned as president of the ECSC High Authority.

1954-Dec-21 UK and ECSC signed an association agreement. The main signatories were Duncan Sandys and Jean Monnet.

1955-Apr-05 Winston Churchill resigned as prime minister due to failing health. He was replaced by Anthony Eden as Conservative leader and prime minister.

1955-May-05 Anthony Eden won a general election with a majority of sixty seats.

1955-May-09 West Germany joined NATO.

1955-May-14 Warsaw Pact created.

1955-Jun-01-03 foreign ministers of the ECSC member states gathered at the Messina Conference to discuss a common market and cooperation in atomic energy. An Intergovernmental Committee was set up with Paul-Henri Spaak as chair, who invited British involvement and the UK government sent a senior diplomat, Russell Bretherton.

1955-Jul-09 Intergovernmental (Spaak) Committee held its first meeting.

1955-Oct-13 Jean Monnet founded the Action Committee of the United States of Europe to promote European integration.

1955-Nov-07 UK withdrew from the Intergovernmental Committee over atomic policy and disengaged from plans to create the EU.

1955-Dec-13 Council of Europe launched its flag with a blue background and twelve yellow stars, which would be adopted by the EU thirty years later.

1956-Jan-18 Action Committee of the United States of Europe held first meeting at which it commended the work of the Messina Conference, but urged that atomic energy was integrated as well as the economy.

1956-Apr-21 Spaak Report (officially called Report by the Heads of Delegations to the Foreign Ministers) published by the Intergovernmental Committee on the structures for planning towards creating the EU.

1956-Jul-26 President Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt nationalised the Suez Canal.

1956-Oct-29 Israel invaded Egypt.

1956-Oct-31 Hungarian prime minister Imre Nagy responded to student protests by promising to take the country out of the Warsaw Pact.

1956-Nov-04 Soviet Union invaded Hungary to reassert its authority and maintain the unity of the Warsaw Pact.

1956-Nov-05 French and British forces seized the Suez Canal, officially to avoid its capture by Israel.

1956-Dec-20 Anthony Eden gave final speech to the House of Commons, in which he denied prior knowledge of the Israeli invasion of Egypt.

1957-Jan-10 Anthony Eden resigned as prime minister over the Suez Crisis and is replaced as Conservative leader and prime minister by Harold Macmillan.

1957-Mar-25 Treaties of Rome establishing the EU and the European Atomic Energy Community signed by Belgium, France, Italy, Netherlands, Luxembourg, and West Germany. The European Court of Justice (set up to adjudicate on the Paris Treaty) added the Rome Treaties to its remit. These treaties had no time limit.

1958-Jan-01 EU and the European Atomic Energy Community [Euratom] came into existence.

1958-Mar-19 European Parliament held its inaugural meeting and elected Robert Schuman as president.

1959-Jan-21 Council of Europe created the European Court of Human Rights.

1959-Jun-08 Greece applied to join the EU.

1959-Jul-31 Turkey applied to join the EU.


1960 Cyprus won independence from the British Empire.

1960-Jan-04 Stockholm Convention created the European Free Trade Association [EFTA] as a looser rival to the six countries of the EU's Paris and Rome Treaties. It is signed by Austria, Denmark, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, and the UK.

1960-May-03 EFTA launched.

1960-Dec-14 the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation became the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development and embraced a more global purpose.

1961-Jul-31 Ireland applied to join the EU.

1961-Aug-09 UK applied to join the EU.

1961-Aug-10 Denmark applied to join the EU.

1961-Aug-12 Berlin Wall constructed.

1961-Sep-01 EU regulation on free movement of workers implemented.

1962-Jan-14 EU Common Agricultural Policy launched.

1962-Apr-30 Norway applied to join the EU.

1962-Jul-30 Common Agricultural Policy implemented.

1962-Nov-01 EU and Greece signed an association agreement.

1963-Jan-14 France blocked the British application to join the EU. Denmark withdrew its application and Ireland's application failed shortly afterwards.

1963-Jan-18 Labour leader Hugh Gaitskell died.

1963-Feb-05 Van Gend en Loos vs. Nederlandse Administratie de Belastingen judgement by the European Court of Justice ruled that member states had consented to sacrifice some of their sovereignty by joining the EU.

1963-Feb-14 Harold Wilson elected Labour Party leader.

1963-Sep-16 Malaysia (including Singapore until 1966) gained independence from the British Empire.

1963-Oct-19 Harold Macmillan resigned as prime minister. He was replaced as Conservative leader and prime minister by Alec Douglas Home.

1963-Dec-12 Kenya gained independence from the British Empire.

1964-Sep-21 Malta gained independence from the British Empire.

1964-Oct-16 Harold Wilson won the general election for Labour and became prime minister.

1964-Dec-01 EU and Turkey signed an association agreement.

1965-Apr-08 Merger Treaty created the EU Commission and the EU Council to oversee the European Communities (Coal and Steel, Atomic Energy, and Economic).

1965-Jul-01 EU crisis over the Common Agricultural Policy when France left the talks and suspended high level involvement with the EU.

1965-Nov-11 Rhodesia made unilateral declaration of independence from the British Empire.

1966-Jan-01 as part of planned moved to a common market the EU moved to majority voting, so that no country has a veto.

1966-Jan-28 France agreed to return to high level EU involvement on condition that majority voting did not apply to matters of major importance.

1967-Feb-09 VAT rules agreed by EU Council of Ministers in the first effort at tax harmonisation.

1967-May-11 UK, Denmark, Ireland, and Norway applied to join the EU.

1967-Jul-01 Merger Treaty implemented, which results in one commission and one council for all European Communities (coal and steel, atomic, and economic).

1967-Nov-18 British government devalued sterling.

1967-Nov-27 France blocked the UK from membership of the EU.

1968-Jan-16 British government announced military withdrawal from East of Suez, i.e., ceasing to maintain military bases in Asia.

1968-Jul-01 EU customs union fully implemented ending customs duties between member states.

1968-Oct-05 police violently deal with Derry civil rights march, which led to widespread rioting that launched thirty years of political violence in Northern Ireland.

1969-Apr-28 Northern Ireland prime minister Terence O'Neil resigned after a unionist paramilitary bombing campaign. He was replaced as Ulster Unionist leader and prime minister by James Chichester Clark.

1969-Apr-28 Charles de Gaulle resigned as French president after his attempts at constitutional reform were voted down.

1969-Jun-20 Georges Pompidou became French president.

1969-Aug-12 Apprentice Boys march in Derry led to two days of riots in the city and across Northern Ireland.

1969-Aug-14 at the request of the Northern Irish government the British Army is deployed for peacekeeping duties in Northern Ireland. The deployment lasted until 2007.

1969-Oct-11 first police officer killed in the Troubles when officer shot dead by unionist paramilitaries in Belfast.

1969-Dec-01 EU Council discussed plans for economic and monetary union and alignment of social policies. They also agreed to the enlargement of the EU.


1970-Jan-01 Iceland joined EFTA.

1970 Common Fisheries Policy began to take shape within the Common Agricultural Policy. This was a key part of preparing for the entry of the maritime nations of Denmark, Ireland, Norway, and the UK. Member states retained exclusive fishing rights within twelve miles of their coastline.

1970-May-20 draft Werner Report submitted to the European Council, which proposed moves towards economic and monetary union.

1970-Jun-19 Ted Heath won the general election for the Conservatives with a healthy majority of thirty-one.

1970-Jun-30 negotiations between EU and Denmark, Ireland, Norway, and the UK to re-open their membership applications.

1970-Oct-08 Werner Report final version submitted to the European Council.

1971-Feb-06 Robert Curtis became the first British soldier to die on Northern Ireland's streets since the outbreak of violence.

1971-Mar-20 Northern Ireland prime minister James Chichester Clark resigned and Brian Faulkner became Ulster Unionist leader and prime minister.

1971-Mar-22 European Council agreed to a gradual ten year move towards economic and monetary union.

1971-Mar-23 100,000 farmers protested in Brussels against plans to change the Common Agricultural Policy.

1971-May-14 Tony Benn tabled an unsuccessful bill to the UK parliament calling for a referendum before the UK is taken into the EU.

1971-Jun-03 Ministers of Justice from EU member states met for first time and cede further powers to the European Court of Justice.

1971-Jul-16 SDLP and Nationalist Party MPs resigned from the Northern Irish Parliament in protest at the failure to launch an official enquiry into British soldiers shooting dead two Catholic men in Derry.

1971-Aug-09 internment without trial of 342 Irish nationalists in Northern Ireland.

1971-Oct-28 UK parliament voted by a majority of 112 to enter the EU.

1972-Jan-09 first British miner's strike since 1926.

1972-Jan-20 UK employment figure hit one million for the first time since the 1930s.

1972-Jan-22 Denmark, Ireland, Norway, and the UK signed the EU accession treaties.

1972-Jan-30 British Parachute Regiment soldiers shot dead thirteen protestors in Derry. Known as Bloody Sunday.

1972-Feb-02 British Embassy in Dublin burnt down by protestors.

1972-Feb-09 British government declared a state of emergency due to impact of the coal strike on the electricity supply.

1972-Feb-16 three day working week imposed to conserve power supplies.

1972-Feb-18 Ted Heath cancelled his planned weekend meeting with French president Georges Pompidou about the UK's EU entry, so that he could seek a resolution to the miners' strike by inviting union leaders to Downing Street.

1972-Feb-19 miners' union leaders accepted pay settlement and recommended that their members vote to end the strike.

1972-Feb-22 Official IRA bombed the Parachute Regiment barracks in Aldershot (England).

1972-Feb-25 miners voted to end their strike and accept a 21% pay increase.

1972-Feb-28 miners returned to work.

1972-Mar-17 in a speech to the annual meeting of the Christian Socialist Movement Tony Benn called on the Labour Party to support a referendum prior to EU entry.

1972-Mar-29 Labour shadow cabinet reversed its previous position and supported a referendum being held before joining the EU.

1972-Mar-30 the Northern Ireland parliament is suspended and direct rule from London imposed.

1972-Apr-23 French referendum approved expansion of EU to include Denmark, Ireland, Norway, and the UK.

1972-Apr-24 EU currency snake established whereby member states agreed to keep their currencies with a 2.25% fluctuation.

1972-May-10 Irish referendum approved joining the EU.

1972-May-29 Official IRA announced ceasefire and apart from occasional breaches never returned to violence.

1972-Jun-26 Provisional IRA began truce.

1972-Jul-07 secret negotiations between British government and the IRA, including later Sinn Fein leaders Gerry Adams and Martin McGuinness.

1972-Jul-09 Provisional IRA ended truce. For the rest of the timeline IRA refers to the Provisional IRA.

1972-Jul-21 IRA detonated twenty-two bombs and killed nine people. Known as Bloody Friday

. 1972-Sep-12 EU members plus Denmark, Ireland, Norway, and the UK agreed to a plan for monetary union.

1972-Sep-25 Norwegian referendum rejected joining the EU.

1972-Oct-02 Danish referendum approved joining the EU.

1972-Oct-16 UK parliament approved joining the EU by a slender majority of eight votes.

1972-Oct-19 EU Council summit affirmed a deadline of 1980 for monetary union.

1972-Dec-01 two car bombs exploded in Dublin with one killing two bus conductors.

1973-Jan-01 Denmark, Ireland, and UK join the EU.

1973-Jan-01 EU implemented free trade deal with Austria, Portugal, Sweden, and Switzerland.

1973-Mar-08 Northern Ireland border poll held, but boycotted by those in favour of a united Ireland, so 98% voted to remain in the UK. The IRA detonated bombs in London, Belfast, and Derry.

1973-Apr-01 free trade agreement between the EU and Iceland implemented.

1973-Jun-28 election held for the new Northern Ireland Assembly.

1973-Jul-01 Norway and the EU free trade agreement implemented.

1973-Oct-05 Finland and the EU enter a free trade agreement limited to industrial goods.

1973-Oct-06 Yom Kippur War began between Israel and its Arab neighbouring states, which led to an oil crisis for European economies.

1973-Nov-22 Ted Heath appointed new Northern Irish executive with the Ulster Unionists' former prime minister Brian Faulkner as chief executive and SDLP leader Gerry Fitt as his deputy.

1973-Dec-09 Sunningdale Agreement granted the Republic of Ireland a consultative role in certain aspects of Northern Ireland's governance.

1974-Jan-01 EU and Finland free trade agreement implemented.

1974-Jan-01 Northern Ireland Executive assumes power and direct rule ended.

1974-Jan-04 Ulster Unionists rejected the Sunningdale Agreement.

1974-Jan-07 Brian Faulkner resigned as the Ulster Unionist leader, but remained Chief Executive of Northern Ireland.

1974-Feb-07 Ted Heath called a general election over claims that the National Union of Mineworkers was trying to bring down the Conservative government.

1974-Feb-28 Harold Wilson won the general election for Labour and returned as prime minister of a minority government. Labour had included a manifesto promise to hold a referendum on staying in or leaving the EU. Anti-Sunningdale unionists won eleven of twelve Westminster seats in Northern Ireland and their refusal to support Ted Heath's Conservatives handed minority power to Wilson.

1974-Apr-01 new British foreign secretary James Callaghan calls for changes to the Common Agricultural Policy, member state contributions to the EU budget, and monetary policy.

1974-Apr-25 uprising by junior military officers ended Portugal's dictatorship and heralded a return to democracy.

1974-May-14 Ulster Workers Council general strike against the Northern Ireland Executive.

1974-May-17 unionist paramilitaries bomb Dublin and Monaghan killing thirty-three people.

1974-May-28 Northern Ireland Executive collapsed and direct rule from London re-imposed.

1974-May-29 Ulster Workers Council general strike called off.

1974-Jun-21 European Court of Justice ruled that member states may not make it more difficult for a citizen of another member state to set up a business than for one of their own citizens.

1974-Jul-09 announcement that internment in Northern Ireland would be phased out.

1974-Jul-15 Greek junta precipitated military coup in Cyprus.

1974-Jul-20 Turkey invaded Cyprus to protect ethnic Turks in response to a coup instigated by Greece's military rulers and seized one third of the island.

1974-Jul-23 Cypriot junta collapsed and ceasefire declared between Cypriot and Turkish forces.

1974-Jul-24 Greece's military rulers handed over power to politicians and democracy is restored.

1974-Oct-05 IRA bombed two pubs in Guildford, England.

1974-Oct-10 general election gained Labour a parliamentary majority of three, which was his aim to strengthen his hand in negotiations with the EU.

1974-Nov-21 IRA bombed two pubs in Birmingham, England, killing twenty-one people.

1974-Nov-25 IRA declared an illegal organization by the British government.

1974-Nov-29 British government passed the Prevention of Terrorism Act, which sanctioned racially profiling Irish and Northern Irish visitors to Britain.

1974-Nov-30 German Chancellor Helmut Schmidt addressed the Labour Party Annual Conference on the topic of the EU.

1974-Dec-09 European summit of heads of government agrees to meet three times a year as the European Council. Throughout this book European Council is used to refer to EU head of government summits, including those prior to 1975.

1974-Dec-22 IRA ceasefire to facilitate discussions with British government.

1975-Jan-17 IRA ceasefire ended and a campaign against London civilian targets was launched.

1975-Jan-23 Harold Wilson announced the referendum on staying in or leaving the EU.

1975-Feb-04 Margaret Thatcher defeated Ted Heath in an election for leadership of the Conservative Party, but with insufficient votes for an outright victory. He withdrew and a further ballot was held a week later as Thatcher's vote tally was insufficient for an outright win.

1975-Feb-11 Margaret Thatcher became Conservative Party leader and the first woman to lead a major European political party.

1975-Feb-13 Turkish Administrative Area in northern Cyprus declared itself the Turkish Federated State of Cyprus.

1975-Mar-10 European Council met in Dublin and agreed concessions with the UK in advance of the proposed referendum.

1975-Apr-09 UK parliament voted by 396 to 170 to both approve the renegotiation and to remain part of the EU.

1975-Apr-26 Labour Party conference on EU membership voted to leave.

1975-Apr-30 last US administrators forced to flee Vietnam when communist forces seized Saigon.

1975-May-01 election to Northern Ireland Constitutional Convention to attempt to restore power sharing and end direct rule from London.

1975-Jun-05 referendum on the UK's EU membership won by yes (remain) side with 67% of the vote.

1975-Jun-12 Greece applied to join the EU.

1975-Nov-12 Sex Discrimination Act enacted in the UK.

1975-Nov-20 death of General Francisco Franco, the long reigning dictator of Spain, who nominated Prince Juan Carlos as his successor.

1975-Nov-22 Juan Carlos crowned King of Spain and he announced his plans to move Spain back towards democracy.

1976-Mar-16 surprise resignation of Harold Wilson as prime minister. He continued as a member of parliament until 1983.

1976-Apr-05 James Callaghan succeeded Harold Wilson as Labour Party leader and prime minister.

1976-Apr-08 European Court of Justice ruled in favour of equal treatment of men and women.

1976-Jul-12 Roy Jenkins becomes the first UK citizen appointed president of the European Commission. He had led the remain campaign in the 1975 referendum.

1976-Nov-03 EU member states agreed to extend North Sea and North Atlantic coast fishing limits to 200 miles in an early version of the Common Fisheries Policy.

1977-Jan-01 UK took EU rotating presidency for the first time.

1977-Mar-28 Portugal (a military dictatorship until 1974) applied to join the EU.

1977-Apr-05 the European Parliament, European Council, and European Commission signed a joint declaration on fundamental rights was signed by the British foreign secretary David Owen for the European Council and his fellow Labour politician Roy Jenkins for the European Commission, as well as the Italian Emilio Colombo for the European Parliament.

1977-Jun-15 Spain held a general election that restored democracy after four decades of dictatorship and two years of an absolute monarchy.

1977-Jul-28 Spain applied to join the EU.

1978-Mar-09 European Court of Justice ruled that EU law must have precedence over national laws in member states (Simmenthal ruling).

1978-Oct James Callaghan declined to hold a general election and waited for economic recovery.

1979-Jan-22 in response to James Callaghan's imposition of a 5% pay restraint policy the first general strike since 1926 took place and launched the Winter of Discontent.

1979-Feb-14 James Callaghan negotiated a settlement with the trade unions and the Winter of Discontent was ended.

1979-Feb-20 the European Court of Justice ruled that health or environmental issues may not be used as reasons to prevent the importation of foodstuffs across internal EU borders (Cassis de Dijon ruling).

1979-Mar-01 Scotland voted 52% to 48% for devolution, but because less than 40% of the total electorate backed devolution it did not take place.

1979-Mar-01 Wales voted to reject devolution by 80% to 20%.

1979-Mar-13 European Monetary System launched with currency fluctuations limited to 2.25% (as in the early 1970s) for those in the Exchange Rate Mechanism (the UK opted out) and ECUs (European Currency Units) encouraged to be used for transfers between member states.

1979-Mar-28 James Callaghan lost a vote of confidence in the House of Commons, which triggered a general election.

1979-May-03 Margaret Thatcher won the general election for the Conservatives.

1979-Jun-07 first direct elections to the European Parliament won with 48% of the vote and 60 seats by Margaret Thatcher's pro-EU Conservatives. Labourís mostly anti-EU group of seventeen MEPs were led by Barbara Castle, a eurosceptic opponent of the Common Agricultural Policy.

1979-Jun-21/22 European Council first discussed Margaret Thatcher's demand for a reduction in the UK contribution to the EU budget.


1980-Nov-10 eurosceptic Michael Foot won the Labour Party leadership election.

1981-Jan-01 Greece joined the EU.

1981-Jan-12 Gaston Thorn replaced Roy Jenkins as European Commission president.

1981-Mar-26 Roy Jenkins, David Owen, William Rodgers, and Shirley Williams announce that they are leaving the Labour Party to form the Social Democratic Party. Twenty-seven Labour MPs and one Conservative MP switched to the new party, with another MP joining in 1982.

1981-Jul-01 UK assumed rotating EU presidency for the first time under Margaret Thatcher.

1982-Feb-23 Greenland referendum on EU membership won by the leave side.

1982-Apr-02 Argentina invaded the Falklands Islands, a UK overseas territory.

1982-May-30 Spain joined NATO.

1982-Jun-14 British forces liberated the Falklands Islands.

1982-Jul-01 Greece assumed the EU presidency for first time.

1982-Sep-14 MEP Altiero Spinelli presented his draft Treaty on European Union to the European Parliament that called for further integration of the EU.

1983-Jun-09 Conservatives won the general election against a Labour party campaigning to withdraw from the EU. The pro-EU Liberal Party and Social Democratic Party Alliance came a close third.

1983-Jun-19 European Council issued the Solemn Declaration on European Union that committed the EU to fulfilling the terms of the Treaties of Paris and Rome, including a commitment to complete the removal of trade barriers within the EU.

1983-Oct-02 Neil Kinnock elected Labour Party leader.

1983-Nov-15 the Turkish Federated State of Cyprus is proclaimed the independent state of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.

1983-Nov-18 United Nations Security Council passed Resolution 541 which refused to grant recognition to the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus because it contravened the 1960 Nicosia Treaty and the 1960 Treaty of Guarantee.

1984-Mar-19 European Council meeting in Brussels disrupted by disagreements over compensation to the UK for paying too much into the EU budget.

1984-Jun-14 European Parliament elections again won by the Conservatives with forty-five seats to Labour's thirty-two.

1984-Jun-25-26 UK rebate agreed by the European Council.

1985-Jan-07 Jacques Delors became European Commission president.

1985-Feb-13 European Court of Justice ruled that a citizen of another member state must not be charged higher study fees than a national.

1985-May-07 the principle of the British rebate instituted to compensate the industrial economy of the UK, which received far less from the EU budget than other member states.

1986-Jan-01 Spain and Portugal joined the EU.

1986-Feb-17 Single European Act treaty signed in Luxembourg.

1986-Feb-28 Single European Act treaty signed in The Hague.

1987-Apr-14 Turkey applied to join the EU.

1987-Jun-11 Margaret Thatcher's Conservatives won a third successive general election with a majority of 102. The manifesto included a commitment to replace rates (the local tax based on housing valuation) with an individual poll tax.

1987-Jul-01 Single European Act implemented and the Treaty of Rome was substantially amended. It introduced qualified majority voting to reduce the ability of one state to veto the rest of the EU, added to EU powers including social policy, and strengthened the role of the European Parliament.

1988-Mar-03 Liberal Democrats formed out of the Alliance electoral pact between the Liberal Party and the Social Democratic Party.

1988-Jul-06 Jacques Delors in a speech to the European Parliament declared that in ten years time 80% of laws on economics and maybe also social policy would be made in the EU, not national parliaments.

1988-Sep-08 Jacques Delors addressed the Trades Union Congress in Bournemouth (England) about the single market and the need to preserve social protections.

1988-Sep-20 Margaret Thatcher delivered her anti-federalist but not eurosceptic Bruges Speech.

1989-Apr-01 poll tax introduced in Scotland.

1989-Jun-15 Labour won the European Parliament election for the first time and reversed the seats count from 1984 to Labour forty-five and Conservatives thirty-two.

1989-Oct-26 Nigel Lawson resigned as chancellor over Margaret Thatcher's refusal to enter the European Exchange Rate Mechanism. John Major became chancellor in his place.

1989-Nov-09 Berlin Wall came down.

1989-Dec-05 Margaret Thatcher won the Conservative Party leadership election by 314 votes to 35 over Sir Anthony Meyer.


1990-Apr-28 European Council agreed policy on German reunification and expansion to include other East European states.

1990-Mar-31 anti-poll tax rally in Trafalgar Square (Central London) turned violent.

1990-Apr-01 poll tax introduced in England and Wales.

1990-Jun-19 Schengen Agreement on visa free travel signed by Belgium, France, Luxembourg, Netherlands, and West Germany.

1990-Jul-01 first stage of monetary union implemented, but leeway given to Greece, Ireland, Portugal, and Spain to bring their economies into line.

1990-Jul-03 Cyprus applied to join the EU.

1990-Jul-16 Malta applied to join the EU.

1990-Oct-03 Germany is reunified and the former East Germany incorporated into the EU.

1990-Oct-05 UK announced that it will join the Exchange Rate Mechanism.

1990-Nov-01 deputy prime minister Geoffrey Howe resigned over Margaret Thatcher's opposition to a single EU currency.

1990-Nov-20 Margaret Thatcher won a leadership victory over Michael Heseltine, but without gaining an outright victory.

1990-Nov-22 Margaret Thatcher resigned as Conservative Party leader.

1990-Nov-27 John Major elected Conservative leader and prime minister.

1990-Nov-27 Italy joined Schengen Agreement, bringing its membership into line with the original six EU member states.

1991-Jan-01 Liechtenstein joined EFTA.

1991-Feb-15 first meeting of Visegrad Group between senior politicians of Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland decided to work towards removing barriers to economic co-operation.

1991-Nov Alan Sked founded the Anti-Federalist League to campaign against integrationist moves in the EU.

1991-Dec-09 European Council at Maastricht agreed what became the Maastricht Treaty.

1992-Feb-07 Maastricht Treaty signed by foreign and finance ministers of EU member states.

1992-Mar-18 Finland applied to join the EU.

1992-Apr-09 John Major won the general election despite Conservative Party splits over the Maastricht Treaty. The Anti-Federalist League stood unsuccessfully on an anti-Maastricht manifesto in seventeen seats.

1992-Apr-13 Neil Kinnock resigned as Labour Party leader.

1992-May-20 Switzerland applied to join the EU.

1992-Jun-02 Danish electorate rejected Maastricht Treaty in a referendum.

1992-Jun-18 Irish electorate approved Maastricht Treaty in a referendum.

1992-Jul-01 UK took the rotating presidency at a crucial time for the Maastricht Treaty.

1992-Jul-18 John Smith elected Labour Party leader.

1992-Sep-16 UK forced out of Exchange Rate Mechanism by currency speculators.

1992-Sep-20 French electorate approved Maastricht Treaty in a referendum.

1992-Nov-22 Norway applied to join the EU.

1992-Dec-06 Swiss electorate rejected the creation of the European Economic Area in a referendum.

1992-Dec-11 European Council met in Edinburgh and offered Denmark concessions to enable the holding of a new referendum on the Maastricht Treaty. Denmark was granted opt outs on citizenship, the single currency, policing and justice, and security and defence.

1993-Jan-01 Single European Market implemented.

1993-Jan-01 Czechoslovakia separated into Czechia (then called the Czech Republic) and Slovakia. Both nations join the Visegrad group.

1993-Feb-01 EU began negotiations with Austria, Finland, and Sweden.

1993-Apr-05 EU began separate negotiations with Norway.

1993-May-18 Danish electorate accepted the Maastricht Treaty with the Edinburgh Agreement opt outs.

1993-Aug-02 UK parliament ratified the Maastricht Treaty.

1993-Sep-03 UKIP formed by Alan Sked to campaign for a complete withdrawal from the European Union. The Anti-Federalist League, which had not campaigned for withdrawal, was disbanded.

1993-Oct-28-31 Visegrad Group agreed to co-operate in making applications to integrate with West European structures.

1993-Nov-01 Maastricht Treaty (Treaty on the European Union) implemented.

1994-Jan-01 European Economic Area established consisting of all EU members plus all EFTA countries except Switzerland.

1994-Mar-31 Hungary applied to join the EU.

1994-Apr-05 Poland applied to join the EU.

1994-May-12 Labour leader John Smith died less than a month before the European Parliament elections.

1994-Jun-09 temporary leader Margaret Becket guided a grieving Labour Party to extend its grip on the European Parliament winning sixty-two seats to the Conservatives' eighteen. UKIP contested the European election for the first time, but won no seats.

1994-Jun-12 Austrian electorate voted in referendum in favour of joining the EU.

1994-Oct-16 Finnish electorate voted in referendum in favour of joining the EU.

1994-Nov-13 Swedish electorate voted in referendum in favour of joining the EU.

1994-Nov-28 Norwegian electorate voted in referendum against joining the EU.

1994-Nov-24 Referendum Party formed to campaign for a referendum on British EU membership.

1995-Jan-01 Austria, Finland, and Sweden joined the EU.

1995-Mar-26 Schengen Agreement visa free travel area implemented by Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain.

1995-Apr-28 Austria signed the Schengen Agreement.

1995-Apr-09 Liechtenstein electorate supported joining the European Economic Area in a referendum.

1995-May-01 Liechtenstein joined European Economic Area.

1995-Jun-22 Romania applied to join the EU.

1995-Jun-22 John Major resigned as Conservative Party leader, but announced that he would stand in the leadership election.

1995-Jun-27 Slovakia applied to join the EU.

1995-Jul-04 John Major won the leadership election he triggered by resigning. His eurosceptic challenger John Redwood received 89 votes to Major's 218.

1995-Oct-13 Latvia applied to join the EU.

1995-Oct-17 Kalanke ruling: automatic promotion for women was ruled not in keeping with EU law on gender equality by the European Court of Justice.

1995-Nov-24 Estonia applied to join the EU.

1995-Dec-08 Lithuania applied to join the EU.

1995-Dec-14 Bulgaria applied to join the EU.

1995-Dec-15 Bosman ruling: the European Court of Justice ruled that limits on foreign sports players may not be applied to EU nationals.

1996-Jan-17 Czechia applied to join the EU.

1996-Mar-27 EU banned imports of British beef over the danger to human health of BSE infection in British beef.

1996-May-21 John Major announced non-cooperation with EU, through a policy of vetoing legislation requiring UK approval, until the beef ban is lifted.

1996-Jun-10 Slovenia applied to join the EU.

1996-Jun-22 John Major abandoned policy of non-cooperation with the EU.

1996-Oct-09 John Major promised a referendum before a Conservative government would take the UK into the single currency.

1996-Nov-16 Labour announced that they will hold a referendum before taking the country into the single currency.

1996-Dec-13 European Council in Dublin set out framework for launch of the euro.

1996-Dec-19 Denmark, Finland, and Sweden sign the Schengen Agreement.

1997-Apr-17 European Court of Justice ruled that men and women must have equal rights in terms of pension survivor rights, i.e., widow and widower pensions.

1997-May-01 Tony Blair led Labour to a landslide victory in the general election.

1997-Jun-16-17 at European Council meeting in Amsterdam Tony Blair signed the UK up to the social chapter. This facilitated the negotiation of the Amsterdam Treaty which would write the social chapter provisions into the Treaty of Rome (or Treaty Establishing the European Community).

1997-Sep-11 Scotland voted by a majority of 48.58% to approve the establishment of a Scottish Parliament.

1997-Sep-18 Wales voted by a majority of 0.6% to approve the establishment of a devolved Welsh Assembly.

1997-Oct-02 member state foreign ministers signed the Amsterdam Treaty, which wrote the social chapter into the Treaty of Rome, brought the Schengen Agreement into EU law and enhanced the legislative status of the European Parliament. These changes were not due for implementation until 1999, until which time the UK remained opted out of the EU social chapter.

1997-Oct-30 UK informed EU that it will not join the euro for its 1999 launch.

1998-Apr-10 Belfast Agreement signed that led to the end of most political violence in Northern Ireland.

1998-May-22 referendums held in both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland on constitutional changes resulting from the Good Friday Agreement. Both were passed and devolved government returned to Northern Ireland.

1998-Jun-01 European Central Bank launched.

1998-Oct-21 presidents of Czechia, Hungary, and Poland meet to re-launch the earlier plans of the Visegrad group to work together in their engagement with Western European structures.

1998-Nov-01 European Court of Human Rights is reformed and individuals may apply to it directly. The European Commission on Human Rights was disbanded.

1999-Jan-01 euro launched. Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal and Spain adopt the euro as their official currency.

1999-May-01 Amsterdam Treaty implemented.

1999-Jun-10 William Hague's eurosceptic Conservatives won the European Parliament election by thirty-six seats to Labour's twenty-nine on the lowest ever turnout of 24%. UKIP won three seats, including one for future party leader Nigel Farage. This was the first national British election under proportional representation.


2000-Jun-19-20 the European Council approved Greece for eurozone membership.

2000-Jul-01 Oresund Bridge opened between Copenhagen and Malmo which gave Denmark its first road and rail link to the rest of Scandinavia.

2000-Sep-22 European Central Bank, United States Federal Reserve, and Bank of Japan intervened to protect falling value of the euro.

2000-Sep-28 Danish referendum rejected joining the euro 53% to 47%.

2000-Dec-07-09 European Council in Nice negotiated the Nice Treaty on expansion, voting changes, and established an EU rapid reaction military force.

2001-Jan-02 Greece adopted the euro as its official currency.

2001-Feb-26 Nice Treaty signed.

2001-Jun-07 Irish electorate rejected the Nice Treaty.

2001-Sep-11 terrorist attack brought down the Twin Towers in New York leading to nearly 3,000 deaths.

2001-Oct-07 American and British air forces launch the first attacks of the Afghan War.

2001-Oct-19 the European Council backs the military action in Afghanistan, so long as it is conducted within clearly stated United Nations terms.

2001-Dec-09 final Taliban strongholds fell and the Afghan War ended.

2002-Jan-01 euro notes and coins entered use in eurozone countries.

2002-Feb-28 national notes and coins cease to be legal tender in eurozone countries.

2002-Oct-19 Irish electorate accepted the Nice Treaty after reassurances about Irish neutrality in relation to the security and defence policy.

2003-Jan-30 British government released dossier Iraq: Its Infrastructure of Concealment, Deception and Intimidation.

2003-Feb-01 the Nice Treaty implemented.

2003-Feb-06 British government embarrassed by the revelation that its January dossier on Iraq contained substantial portions that were plagiarised from the internet.

2003-Feb-15 up to one million protestors gathered in London in protest against plans to invade Iraq.

2003-Mar-19 UK parliament approves a British invasion of Iraq, despite a rebellion by backbenchers of the Labour government.

2003-Mar-20 United States air assaults launched the Iraq War.

2003-Mar-23 Slovenian electorate agreed to join EU in a referendum.

2003-Apr-12 Hungarian electorate agreed to join EU in a referendum.

2003-Apr-16 Accession Treaty in Athens signed by EU and governments of Cyprus, Czechia, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia.

2003-May-01 United States president George W Bush announced the end of the Iraq War.

2003-May-10 Lithuanian electorate agreed to join EU in a referendum.

2003-May-16 Slovakian electorate agreed to join EU in a referendum.

2003-Jun-07 Polish electorate agreed to join EU in a referendum.

2003-Jun-13 Czech electorate agreed to join EU in a referendum.

2003-Jun-20/21 European Council met with Balkan leaders in Thessaloniki (Greece) to discuss their countries' possible entry into the EU.

2003-Sep-14 Swedish electorate rejected joining the euro in a referendum vote.

2003-Sep-20 Latvian electorate agreed to join EU in a referendum

2003-Nov-06 Michael Howard became Conservative Party leader.

2004-May-01 Cyprus, Czechia, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia joined the EU. Unlike France and Germany, the UK did not defer the right of the citizens of these countries to live and work in the UK, which results in large-scale immigration.

2004-Jun-10 Michael Howard's Conservatives won the European election with twenty-seven seats to Labour's nineteen. UKIP and Liberal Democrats were tied on twelve seats each.

2004-Oct-06 Iraq Survey Group issued report concluding that Iraq had no weapons of mass destruction (nuclear or biological) prior to the American and British led invasion of the country.

2004-Oct-29 the Treaty Establishing a Constitution for Europe signed by twenty-five heads of government in Rome.

2005-Feb-20 Spanish electorate agreed to the EU Constitution in a referendum.

2005-May-05 Tony Blair matched Margaret Thatcher in winning three successive terms as prime minister, but with a much-reduced majority of sixty-five in a general election dominated by public anger over the Iraq War.

2005-May-29 France rejected the EU Constitution in a referendum.

2005-Jun-01 the Netherlands rejected the EU Constitution in a referendum.

2005-Jul-10 Luxembourg agreed to the EU Constitution in a referendum.

2005-Dec-06 David Cameron won the Conservative Party leadership election.

2006-Oct-01 in his first conference speech as leader David Cameron tells Conservative Party annual gathering to stop banging on about Europe.

2007-Jan-01 Bulgaria and Romania joined the EU. UK deferred Bulgarian and Romanian rights to freedom of movement for seven years.

2007-Jan-01 After a twenty-four year wait Irish became an official EU language.

2007-Jan-01 Slovenia adopted the euro as its official currency.

2007-Mar-06 David Cameron promised to restore the UK opt out from the EU social chapter.

2007-Jun-27 Gordon Brown succeeded Tony Blair as Labour Party leader and prime minister.

2007-Jul-23 European Council discussed a new treaty and the EU Constitution is quietly buried.

2007-Sep-14 Liberal Democrat leader Menzies Campbell called for a referendum on EU membership in opposition to calls for the government to hold a referendum on the Lisbon Treaty.

2007-Oct-06 Gordon Brown ruled out calling an early general election.

2007-Oct-18 EU summit agreed the terms of the Lisbon Treaty.

2007-Dec-13 Treaty of Lisbon signed.

2007-Dec-21 Schengen visa free travel area expanded to include Estonia, Czechia, Lithuania, Hungary, Latvia, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia.

2008-Jan-14 David Cameron promised a referendum on the Lisbon Treaty if he becomes prime minister before its implementation.

2008-Feb-18 British government forced to nationalise Northern Rock bank to avoid its collapse.

2008-Feb-25 Liberal Democrat leader Nick Clegg called for a referendum on EU membership.

2008-Feb-26 Liberal Democrat Ed Davey expelled from the House of Commons chamber for persistent demands to have his party's amendment on a referendum on EU membership heard. Party leader Nick Clegg led the rest of his MPs in a walkout from the chamber.

2008-Jun-12 Ireland rejected the Lisbon Treaty in a referendum.

2008-Jun-18 European Council decided to continue ratifying the Lisbon Treaty despite the Irish rejection.

2008-Sep-15 Lehman Brothers investment bank collapsed and triggered a global financial meltdown.

2008-Oct-06 Catherine Ashton replaced another British Labour Party politician, Peter Mandelson, as EU Commissioner for External Trade.

2008-Oct-15 European Council discussed global financial crisis.

2008-Dec-12 Switzerland became the first non-EU country to join the Schengen Agreement.

2009-Jan-01 Slovakia adopted the euro as its official currency.

2009-Jul-07 David Cameron's Conservatives won the European election with twenty-five seats on a manifesto promising a referendum on the Lisbon Treaty. UKIP and Labour were tied on thirteen seats, with Liberal Democrats just behind on eleven. The far-right BNP won two seats.

2009-Jul-23 Iceland applied to join the EU.

2009-Oct-03 Ireland accepted the Lisbon Treaty in a second referendum after some concessions were agreed.

2009-Nov-04 David Cameron abandoned his promise of a Lisbon Treaty referendum and replaced it with a promise to amend the European Communities Act 1972 to guarantee a referendum if there was any further transfer of powers to the EU.

2009-Nov-20 Catherine Ashton appointed first EU High Representative for Foreign Affairs. This new role was created by the Lisbon Treaty, which she had steered through the UK House of Lords in 2007. She had no foreign policy experience, but had worked as the EU Commissioner for External Trade for the previous thirteen months.

2009-Dec-01 Lisbon Treaty implemented.

2009-Dec-22 Serbia applied for EU membership.


2010-Mar-26 European Council agreed that the sixteen Eurozone countries would support a plan to help Greece with its deficit.

2010-Apr-23 Greece received a 45 billion euro bail out jointly funded by the EU and the International Monetary Fund.

2010-May-07 Eurozone heads of government agreed to closer fiscal consolidation, economic co-ordination, and budgetary supervision.

2010-May-12 David Cameron became prime minister in a coalition involving his cautiously eurosceptic Conservative Party and the europhile Liberal Democrats, whose leader Nick Clegg became deputy prime minister. The programme of government contained Cameron's 2009 promise to amend the European Communities Act 1972 to require a referendum if any future sovereignty was to be handed to the EU; it also ruled out joining the euro. The Liberal Democrats dropped their manifesto commitment to hold an EU membership referendum.

2010-Nov-28 Ireland reluctantly received an eighty-five billion euro bail out jointly funded by the EU and the International Monetary Fund.

2011-Jan-01 Estonia became the 17th country to adopt the euro.

2011-Jan-14 Tunisian president Zine El Abidine Ben Ali resigned over protests in an event that launched what Western media described as the Arab Spring of popular protests and revolutions across the Arab world.

2011-Feb-26 United Nations Security Council passed Resolution 1970 that imposed sanctions on Libya and called for an end to violence in the country and an end to the sieges mounted against rebel cities.

2011-Feb-27 Catherine Ashton (EU High Representative for Foreign Affairs) supported United Nations Resolution 1970 and called on Muammar Gaddafi and the Libyan government to end human rights abuses.

2011-Mar-03 Wales voted in a referendum to allow the Welsh Assembly to pass laws in all devolved areas without requiring permission from the UK parliament.

2011-Mar-07 European Parliament called for Muammar Gaddafi to relinquish power.

2011-Mar-11 European Council called for Muammar Gaddafi to relinquish power.

2011-Mar-15 Syrian civil war began when Syrian soldiers shot and killed pro-democracy protesters.

2011-Mar-17 European Commission President and EU High Representative welcomed UN Resolution 1973 on military intervention in Libya to prevent a possible massacre in Benghazi, the centre of an armed uprising.

2011-Mar-18 Herman van Rompuy (European Commission President) and Catherine Ashton (EU High Representative for Foreign Affairs) issued a statement commending Resolution 1973 and referring to the 11 March call by the European Council for Muammar Gaddafi to relinquish power.

2011-Mar-19 foreign air forces commenced attacks on Libyan military targets.

2011-Mar-21 UK parliament supported British military intervention in Libya.

2011-Mar-31 NATO assumed command of the military intervention in Libya, which is termed Operation Protector. They provide air power to eventually drive the rebel National Transitional Council to victory across Libya.

2011-Apr-15 Libya Letter written by US president Barack Obama, French president Nicolas Sarkozy, and David Cameron is published in major English, American, and French newspapers. It asserted that the NATO campaign would continue until Muammar Gaddafi was overthrown.

2011-May-03 Portugal received a seventy-eight billion euro bail out jointly funded by the EU and the International Monetary Fund.

2011-May-06 Alternative Vote referendum won by the No side, who were strongly backed by David Cameron.

2011-May-06 Alex Salmond's SNP becomes the first ever majority government in the reconstituted Scottish Parliament on a manifesto of holding a referendum about independence from the UK.

2011-Jul-11 Eurozone countries signed a deal to create a 500 billion euro European Stability Mechanism to support financially troubled Eurozone countries.

2011-Jul-19 European Union Act 2011 enacted setting the changes in EU law that would trigger a UK referendum.

2011-Jul-21 Eurozone countries bailed out Greece with 109 billion euros.

2011-Aug-18 EU joined the United States, the UK, France, and Germany in calling for Syrian president Bashar Al-Assad to give up power.

2011-Sep-16 United Nations recognised National Transitional Council as the legitimate government of Libya.

2011-Oct-11 former Ukrainian prime minister Yulia Tymoshenko imprisoned on corruption charges.

The EU warned Ukrainian president Viktor Yanukovych of profound implications.

2011-Oct-11 Catherine Ashton (EU High Representative for Foreign Affairs) condemned imprisonment of Yulia Tymoshenko as an attack on opposition politicians, despite Tymoshenko's history of corruption.

2011-Oct-20 Muammar Gaddafi captured and killed during Battle of Sirte.

2011-Oct-26 Eurozone countries bailed out Greece with a further 130 billion euros.

2011-Oct-31 NATO officially ended Operation Protector intervention in Libya.

2011-Oct-31 Greek prime minister George Papandreou announced a referendum on the terms of the EU bail out to be held on 4 or 5 December.

2011-Nov-03 Cannes G20 Conference voiced opposition to the Greek referendum and George Papandreou abandoned the plan to hold one.

2011-Nov-11 Under EU pressure a grand coalition of major parties takes over the Greek government after prime minister George Papandreou resigned the previous day.

2011-Dec-19 Liechtenstein joined the Schengen Area.

2012-Jan renewed rebellion in Benghazi, this time against the National Transitional Council.

2012-Jan-22 Croatia voted to join the EU in a referendum.

2012-Feb-02 European Stability Mechanism Treaty signed.

2012-Feb-21 Greece received further bail out of 130 billion euros.

2012-Jun-09 Spain received a 100 billion euro bailout jointly funded by the EU and the International Monetary Fund.

2012-Jun-10 the British ambassador in Benghazi escaped an assassination attempt.

2012-Jul-07 Libyan election voted in first democratic government: the General National Congress.

2012-Sep-11 United States embassy in Benghazi attacked and the ambassador was among four American fatalities.

2012-Sep-12 European Commission president Jose Manuel Barroso used his annual state of the union speech to encourage the EU to push ahead with the original dream of becoming a bloc of federated nations, which would require a new treaty.

2012-Oct-08 European Stability Mechanism implemented.

2012-Oct-15 Edinburgh Agreement between UK and Scottish governments cleared the path for holding a Scottish independence referendum.

2012-Dec-10 EU awarded the Noble Peace Prize.

2013-Jan-23 David Cameron promised that a Conservative majority government would guarantee to hold an in-out referendum on European membership.

2013-Mar-25 Cyprus received a 10 billion euro bailout.

2013-May-13 Michael Gove declared on the BBC's Andrew Marr Show that he would vote leave in a referendum, but that a renegotiation of membership terms would be preferable.

2013-Jun further uprising in Benghazi this time against General National Congress government.

2013-Jul-01 Croatia joined the EU.

2013-Oct-18 Italy launched Operation Mare Nostrum to rescue increasing number of migrants crossing the Mediterranean Sea from Libya.

2013-Nov-21 Ukraine pulled out of an agreement for closer trade links with the EU.

2013-Nov-24 100,000 protested in Kiev against decision to stop negotiations with the EU.

2013-Dec-01 pro-EU protestors occupied Kiev town hall.

2014-Jan-01 Latvia became the 18th country to adopt the euro.

2014-Feb-22 Ukrainian president Viktor Yanukovych forced to resign and parliament announced new elections.

2014-Mar-01 Russian parliament approved military intervention in Ukraine.

2014-Mar-16 Crimea referendum voted to secede from Ukraine.

2014-Mar-18 Russia legislated to annex Crimea.

2014-May-11 David Cameron promises that he will not become prime minister, whether or not with an overall majority, if he cannot guarantee an EU membership referendum will be held by the end of 2017.

2014-May-17 Nigel Farage prevented from speaking at a pro-union meeting in Edinburgh during the independence referendum campaign.

2014-May-22 UKIP narrowly win the European election with twenty-four seats against Labour's twenty and the Conservatives' nineteen. Liberal Democrats collapsed to one seat. The UK electorate voted overwhelmingly for eurosceptic MEPs.

2014-May-25 Petro Poroshenko elected President of Ukraine in an election that was largely only polled in the pro-EU western half of the country.

2014-May-29 Russia, Kazakhstan, and Belarus signed the Treaty of the Eurasian Economic Union.

2014-Jun-24 Libyan elections to General National Congress successor House of Representatives in which only 18% of the electorate voted. Within months fighting breaks out between militias connected to the General National Congress and the House of Representatives.

2014-Jun-25 Russian parliament rescinded authorisation for military action in Ukraine.

2014-Jun-27 EU and Ukraine sign an association agreement.

2014-Jul-01 Nick Clegg refused to match Conservative Party manifesto promise of an EU membership referendum, but continued to offer one if any further sovereignty is sacrificed to the EU.

2014-Sep-18 Scottish electorate rejected independence in a referendum.

2014-Oct-09 Armenia signed the Treaty of the Eurasian Economic Union.

2014-Oct-24 pro-EU parliamentary parties won the Ukrainian general election.

2014-Oct-31 EU negotiated for Russia to restore gas supplies to Ukraine.

2014-Oct-31 Italy ended Operation Mare Nostrum after rescuing 100,000 refugees in the twelve months it was in existence. It was replaced by the EU's Operation Triton.

2014-Nov-01 new qualified majority voting introduced to the European Council which meant that a motion is carried if 55% of member states vote for it, which is currently 16 out of 28 members. Those member states must also comprise 65% or more of the EU population. Transitional arrangements (ending on 31 March 2017) meant that a member state could insist that a vote is based on the previous setup which granted different votes to each country based on population size.

2014-Nov-01 Federica Mogherini replaced Catherine Aston as EU High Representative for Foreign Affairs and European Commission Vice-President.

2014-Dec-23 Kyrgyzstan signed the Treaty of the Eurasian Economic Union.

2015-Jan-01 Lithuania became the 19th country to adopt the euro.

2015-Jan-01 Eurasian Economic Union came into existence as a rival to the EU consisting of Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Russia.

2015-Apr-23 European Council discussed actions to deal with the migrant crisis in the Mediterranean.

2015-May-07 David Cameron's Conservatives win a surprise outright majority in the general election on a manifesto promise to hold an EU membership referendum.

2015-May-28 EU Referendum Bill 2015 first reading in parliament.

2015-Jun-22 The Five Presidents Report published, which encouraged deeper EU integration in the pursuit of European Monetary Union.

2015-Jun-25 David Cameron informed the European Council meeting of his plans for an EU membership referendum, but further discussion is deferred until December 2015.

2015-Jun-26 further austerity conditions are placed on Greece so the government, which was elected on a mandate to reduce austerity, called a referendum.

2015-Jul UK parliament Foreign Affairs Committee launched an investigation into the 2011 military intervention in Libya.

2015-Jul-05 Greece voted in a referendum to reject creditor terms and to seek a better deal.

2015-Jul-11 Germany revealed proposals to asset strip the Greek state in return for further loans.

2015-Jul-13 Greece accepted new creditor conditions and a further loan will be released if they enact certain austerity laws.

2015-Jul-16 Greece enacted austerity laws, which caused the governing Syriza party to split.

2015-Aug-21 Angelika Wenzl erroneously sent a memo about suspending normal EU asylum rules for Syrians to a refugee charity. They placed it on their website and social media fanned the flames. It resulted in tens of thousands of asylum seekers marching north from Greece towards Germany.

2015-Aug-31 German chancellor Angela Merkel defended the apparently accidental open-door asylum policy, because it earned Germany praise around the world.

2015-Aug-31 during August more than 50,000 refugees arrive on the Greek island of Lesbos.

2015-Sep-04 in response to an EU foreign ministers' crisis meeting Angela Merkel authorised bringing migrants to Germany by train.

2015-Sep-09 Denmark closed transport links to migrants travelling from Germany.

2015-Sep-14 Germany imposed controls at border with fellow EU member Austria. In response Austria and Slovakia impose border controls.

2015-Sep-15 Hungary closed its border with Serbia to stem the flow of migrants.

2015-Sep-20 Syriza won the Greek general election called after the party had split over the austerity deal agreed with the EU.

2015-Oct-09 Vote Leave launched as a candidate to become the officially designated campaign for leaving the EU.

2015-Oct-12 Britain Stronger in Europe launched as a candidate to become the officially designated campaign for remaining in the EU.

2015-Oct-15 David Cameron updated the European Council on his referendum plans, but further discussion still postponed until December.

2015-Oct-18 Hungary closed its border with fellow EU member Croatia in response to the failure of the bloc to improve its asylum policy.

2015-Nov-10 David Cameron wrote to Donald Tusk setting out four areas for renegotiation at the December European Council: protections for non-Eurozone EU members, reduced regulations on business, an opt out from ever closer union, and benefit restrictions on internal EU migrants.

2015-Nov-13 128 killed and 180 injured in a series of terrorist attacks in Paris.

2015-Dec-01 Labour In remain campaign launched in Birmingham by former home secretary Alan Johnson.

2015-Dec-03 Denmark voted in a referendum against dropping their 1993 Maastricht Treaty opt out from EU policing and justice policies.

2015-Dec-07 Donald Tusk wrote to all EU leaders summing up his assessment of the position of David Cameron's four points prior to the European Council summit later that month.

2016-Dec-10 Labour Leave announced campaign team to fight against what it saw as the anti-socialist EU. It was co-chaired by the MPs Kate Hoey, Graham Stringer, and Kelvin Hopkins.

2015-Dec-17 EU Referendum Act became law.

2015-Dec-17 European Council debated the UK referendum on EU membership.

2015-Dec-17 Libyan Political Agreement signed in Skhirat, Morocco, to create a unity Government of National Accord out of the General National Congress and House of Representatives factions.

2016-Jan-04 Sweden imposed checks at Danish border for the first time in 50 years.

2016-Jan-05 David Cameron reluctantly agreed to allow cabinet members to campaign against the official remain position, but not until the renegotiation was complete.

2016-Jan-20 Labour Leave officially launched.

2016-Jan-23 Grassroots Out launched as rival to Vote Leave for the designation of official leave campaign group. Its principal spokespeople were Nigel Farage (UKIP) and Kate Hoey (Labour).

2016-Feb-11 NATO agreed to begin Aegean Sea patrols to prevent people smuggling.

2016-Feb-17 David Cameron met Boris Johnson to discuss the latter's stance on the referendum campaign.

2016-Feb-18/19 European Council negotiated new UK protections that will only be implemented if the referendum results in a vote to remain in the EU.

2016-Feb-20 David Cameron returned from the European Council and after a cabinet meeting announced to the press that an EU membership referendum would be held on 23 June 2016.

2016-Feb-24 Christine Lagarde of the International Monetary Fund warned against a leave vote during a CNN interview.

2016-Mar-03 British and German finance ministers George Osborne and Wolfgang Schauble shared a platform at the British Chambers of Commerce annual conference.

2016-Mar-05 the Ulster Unionist Party adopted a pro-remain stance.

2016-Mar-07 the UK agreed to provide ships to assist in the NATO Aegean Sea patrols.

2016-Mar-08 EU and Turkey signed controversial deal to return migrants to Turkey as the migrant crisis worsened.

2016-Mar-13 Gisela Stuart, a German-born Labour MP, became chair of Vote Leave and co-chair of the campaign along with Conservative cabinet member Michael Gove.

2016-Mar-13 George Osborne denied that Turkey would be able to join the EU against the UK's wishes, while Vote Leave's Boris Johnson and Priti Patel criticised the promise of visa free travel to Turkish citizens under the EU migrant transfer deal.

2016-Mar-16 George Osborne's budget statement harmed his leadership prospects over the attempt to curtail disability benefits.

2016-Mar-19 Iain Duncan Smith, Secretary of State for Work and Pensions, resigned over proposed disability cuts.

2016-Mar-22 George Osborne withdrew planned disability cuts from the budget.

2016-Mar-30 Libyan Government of National Accord moved to Tripoli to take control of the whole country.

2016-Apr-04 leak of papers from Panamanian solicitors Mossack Fonseca revealed that David Cameron's late father was one of many of the wealthy elite to use it to set up tax avoiding investment schemes.

2016-Apr-07 David Cameron admitted that he benefited from his father's investment fund, but sold off his $44,000 investment prior to taking up office as prime minister in 2010.

2016-Apr-07 Netherlands rejected the EU association deal with Ukraine in a referendum.

2016-Apr-10 David Cameron released his tax returns for the previous seven years, i.e., from 2009 the year before he became prime minister.

2016-Apr-11 official government leaflet arguing for a remain vote is sent out to English households. It was not posted to Northern Irish, Scottish, and Welsh addresses until after their devolved elections. Unlike the 1975 mailing no literature was included from the leave side.

2016-Apr-13 the Electoral Commission announced that Vote Leave had been selected as the official leave campaign. Britain Stronger In Europe was the only applicant for official status on the remain side. This had a major impact on campaign spending of unofficial campaigns, but not political parties. Grassroots Out disbanded after failing to become the official leave campaign.

2016-Apr-14 Labour Party leader Jeremy Corbyn gave first major speech for the remain campaign. Prior to that he had focused on campaigning for the 5 May elections.

2016-Apr-15 official campaign began with funding restrictions applying to both official and unofficial campaign groups. The civil service was no longer allowed to support the Government in matters related to the referendum.

2016-Apr-15 Vote Leave campaigner and cabinet member Priti Patel criticised those who described concern about immigration as racist.

2016-Apr-17 French economy minister Emmanuel Macron told the BBC's Andrew Marr Show that no country would want a trade deal with a small country like the UK that was not part of the EU.

2016-Apr-18 the Treasury released a report on the poor prognosis for the UK economy in the wake of a departure from the EU. George Osborne was derided for trumpeting the overly precise estimate of each household being 4,300 pounds worse off and the figure was dropped from the remain campaign.

2016-Apr-20 David Cameron used the legal cover of parliamentary privilege to accuse the Labour candidate for London Mayor, Sadiq Khan, of consorting with a known extremist, Imam Sulaiman Ghani, whom he claimed supported Islamic State. Ghani had stated that he supported an Islamic state and had previously campaigned for the Conservative Party.

2016-Apr-22 United States president Barack Obama declared at a British Foreign Office press conference that a UK outside the EU would be at the back of the queue when it came to a trade deal with the US.

2016-Apr-22 Boris Johnson wrote an article for The Sun on Barack Obama's referendum intervention and his removal of a Winston Churchill bust from the Oval Office. Remain media and politicians focused on reference to Obama's part-Kenyan ancestry, although that part of the article was referencing the views of others when the bust was removed in 2009.

2016-Apr-23 the Daily Telegraph published an article by President Obama calling for the UK to vote to remain in the EU.

2016-Apr-29 Fishing for Leave launched via announcement in Fishing News.

2016-May-05 Nicola Sturgeon remained as Scottish First Minister, but her SNP lose their outright majority. Ruth Davidson led the Conservative and Unionist Party to become the main opposition in the Scottish Parliament.

2016-May-05 Arlene Foster's pro-Brexit DUP increased their majority in the Northern Ireland Assembly, while Ulster Unionist leader Mike Nesbitt blamed his partyís pro-remain stance for their poor performance in the election. The main story of the election was the pro-Brexit People Before Profit party winning two seats in the Sinn Fein heartlands of West Belfast and Derry.

2016-May-05 Labour narrowly held onto power in the Welsh Assembly, with Conservatives faring less well in comparison to the 2015 general election, and UKIP winning its first seats.

2016-May-05 Sadiq Khan replaced Boris Johnson as London Mayor after an allegedly Islamophobic campaign conducted by the Conservative candidate Zac Goldsmith.

2016-May-09 official government pro-remain leaflet posted to Northern Irish, Scottish, and Welsh households.

2016-May-11 Boris Johnson and Gisela Stuart launched the Vote Leave battle bus tour in Truro. Johnson accused the government of being dishonest over how many EU migrants were living in the UK.

2016-May-11 David Cameron apologised for claiming that imam Sulaiman Ghani supported the Islamic State terrorist group in an attempt to discredit Sadiq Khan in the London mayoral election.

2016-May-13 Christine Lagarde gave press conference with George Osborne at the Treasury in London to highlight the warning against a leave vote in the International Monetary Fund's annual report on the UK economy.

2016-May-20 Michael Gove suggested Turkey could be a EU country by 2020.

2016-May-24 Eurogroup (i.e., eurozone countries) approved Greece for a further tranche of bailout payments.

2016-May-26 the European Commission failed to implement the necessary rules to allow the UK to zero rate VAT on women's sanitary products.

2016-May-26 immigration statistics showed that net migration had worsened and included 270,000 migrants arriving from the EU in the twelve months to March 2016.

2016-May-27 Douglas Carswell, the sole UKIP MP, used the Vote Leave bus tour to proclaim in Skipton (Yorkshire) that money no longer sent to the EU could go to social services and the NHS.

2016-May-27 UK Fisheries Minister George Eustace and leave campaigner Nigel Farage addressed a Fishing for Leave meeting at the Skippers Expo in Aberdeen.

2016-May-27 Select Committee on the Treasury issued a report criticising both remain and leave campaigns for propagating inaccurate claims.

2016-May-28 Priti Patel criticised wealthy remain campaigners who failed to understand why immigration is an issue for those seeking a state school place for their children.

2016-May-29 Michael Gove and Boris Johnson published open letter to David Cameron in the Sunday Times saying that he had misled the country in claiming that he would reduce net migration below 100,000 without leaving the EU. 2016-May-30 David Cameron and Sadiq Khan shared in a launch of the Britain Stronger in Europe battle bus and pledge card.

2016-Jun-07 Labour Party shadow cabinet agreed to mobilise MPs to persuade their constituencies to vote remain as evidence mounted of the strength of the support for Brexit outside London.

2016-Jun-07 Fishing for Leave event at Skippers Expo addressed by Nigel Farage of UKIP and George Eustice, the pro-leave Fisheries Minister.

2016-Jun-13 David Cameron stepped back from fronting the remain campaign to allow current Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn and former Labour prime minister Gordon Brown to shore up the remain vote among their party's supporters.

2016-Jun-13 Labour MP Jo Cox pro-remain article appeared on the Politics Home website. After her death the article was reposted in mainstream media outlets.

2016-Jun-15 SNP leader Nicola Sturgeon called on Scots to vote in the EU referendum and to vote remain.

2016-Jun-15 Battle of the Thames: counter-protest boats led by Bob Geldof harass the Fishing for Leave flotilla to protest against EU devastation of the UK fishing industry. Jo Cox and her family took part in the counter protest in a speed boat.

2016-Jun-15 George Osborne shared a platform with his predecessor chancellor Alistair Darling and threatened an emergency budget of 30 billion pounds in tax rises and spending cuts if the country voted for Brexit.

2016-Jun-16 Nigel Farage revealed Breaking Point poster depicting Syrian refugees marching from Croatia to Slovenia on their way to Germany.

2016-Jun-16 Jo Cox MP murdered and campaigns suspended until the following Monday.

2016-Jun-17 Fishing for Leave flotilla on the River Clyde demonstration cancelled due to Jo Cox's death.

2016-Jun-17 Christine Lagarde warned of the dangers of Brexit to world economy at the Finance in Dialogue conference in Vienna. She was promoting the International Monetary Fund report on the UK, which was postponed a day out of respect for Jo Cox.

2016-Jun-18 Emmanuel Macron in a Le Monde interview warned that Brexit would reduce the UK to the status of Guernsey and referred to the murder of Jo Cox as an attack on democratic debate.

2016-Jun-20 special parliamentary debate on Jo Cox's murder included Labour MP Stephen Kinnock politicising the occasion to criticise UKIP's Breaking Point poster.

2016-Jun-21 Nigel Farage unveiled second UKIP poster in the EU Has Failed Us All series: The School Over Run.

2016-Jun-21 David Cameron made a plea in a statement to press outside 10 Downing Street for older voters to vote remain for the sake of their children and grandchildren.

2016-Jun-21 Wembley Arena Debate held in front of 6,000 strong crowd. Sadiq Khan (Mayor of London), Ruth Davidson (Scottish Conservative leader), and Frances O'Grady (Trade Unions Congress General Secretary) spoke for remain, while Boris Johnson (Conservative MP and former Mayor of London), Gisela Stuart (Labour MP and Vote Leave chair), and Andrea Leadsom (Energy Minister) spoke for leave.

2016-Jun-23 EU membership referendum held.

2016-Jun-24 announced that the UK electorate voted to leave the EU by 52% to 48%.

2016-Jun-24 despite promising otherwise during the campaign David Cameron declined to trigger Article 50 of the Lisbon Treaty and resigned as prime minister. He remained in post until a successor could be selected.

2016-Jun-24 Boris Johnson and Michael Gove gave a press conference at which even the normally ebullient Johnson appeared diffident and unwilling to speak.

2016-Jun-25 Boris Johnson played in a charity cricket match and maintained a media silence while the UK went into a political meltdown.

2016-Jun-25 Tottenham MP David Lammy called for parliament to vote down the referendum result.

2016-Jun-27 in his regular Daily Telegraph column Boris Johnson appeared to row back on a commitment to ending free movement within the EU.

2016-Jun-27 Britain Stronger In Europe chief executive Will Straw gave a petulant response to the defeat, taking swipes at the Conservative Party and Jeremy Corbyn on his own side and accusing the leave campaign of xenophobia.

2016-Jun-29 Nicola Sturgeon flew to Brussels, but is told that the EU cannot negotiate with Scotland as it is not a member state.

2016-Jul-02 more than 10,000 march in Central London against Brexit. Interviews with the crowd suggest that they are mostly middle class professionals and students. David Lammy addressed the crowds.

2016-Jul-08 NATO summit in Warsaw agreed to deploy up to 4,000 troops to the EU's borders with Russia.

2016-Jul-13 Theresa May became prime minister. David Davis, who lost the 2005 leadership election to David Cameron, is appointed Secretary of State for Exiting the EU.

2016-Jul-15 Jo Cox's funeral.

2016-Aug-27 Polish man Arkadiusz Jozwik killed in Harlow in Essex after a late night confrontation with a youth gang. Subsequently it was found that it was not a hate crime.

2016-Sep-12 David Cameron resigned as MP.

2016-Sep-14 UK parliamentary Foreign Affairs Committee released a report highly critical of David Cameron's military action in support of Libyan rebels in 2011.

© Mercia McMahon. All rights reserved